養成好習慣 ? ? ?梁實秋?

Cultivating Good Habits? ? ? ??Liang Shiqiu

| 譯文摘自張培基《英譯中國散文選二》

人的天性大致是差不多的,但是在習慣方面卻各有不同,習慣是慢慢養成的,在幼小的時候最容易養成,一旦養成之后,要想改變過來卻還不很容易。
Men are about the same in human nature, but differ in habit. Habit is formed little by little, and most easily in one’s childhood. Once it is formed, it is difficult to break.

例如說:清晨早起是一個好習慣,這也要從小時候養成,很多人從小就貪睡懶覺,一遇假日便要睡到日上三竿還高臥不起,平時也是不肯早起,往往蓬首垢面的就往學校跑,結果還是遲到,這樣的人長大了之后也常是不知振作,多半不能有什么成就。祖逖聞雞起舞,那才是志士奮勵的榜樣。
For example, the good habit of early rising also starts from one’s early life. Many people, however, have been in the habit of sleeping late ever since they were kids. They won’t get up till late morning on holidays and even oversleep on work days. Children are often late for school though they make a rush even without washing up. Such children, when they grow up, will often lack drive and most probably get nowhere. The story of Zu Ti1 rising at cockcrow to practise swordplay should be a good example for all men of resolve to learn from.

要點
1,“貪睡懶覺”譯為sleeping late,如:Your headache comes from sleeping late.
即,你的頭疼是睡懶覺的結果.
2,“一遇假日便要睡到日上三竿還高臥不起”直譯的話會讓外國人摸不著頭腦,因此采取意譯的方式譯為They won’t get up till late morning on holidays
3,“蓬頭垢面”意即“沒有洗漱和整理”,也是不宜直譯的一個詞,現按意思譯為without washing up。
4,“往往蓬首垢面的就往學校跑,結果還是遲到”可理解為一個讓步句“盡管他們沒有洗漱就往學校跑,仍舊是遲到”譯為Children are often late for school though they make a rush even without washing up
5,“聞雞起舞”即“聽見雞叫就起來舞劍”譯為rising at cockcrow to practise swordplay,另“祖逖”是帶有中國特色的詞匯,宜采用釋義法或加注法,此處因為釋義法會造成句子的冗雜,譯者采取了加腳注的方法
6,“志士”即“意志堅強者”譯為men of resolve,resolve也可換為strong will,determination,aspiration。

綜述:本段俗語,四字詞,涉及中國特色的詞匯稍多,對于一些不好翻譯的四字詞可采取“迂回戰術”取其在語境中的意思來翻

我們中國人最重禮,因為禮是行為的規范。禮要從家庭里做起。姑舉一例:為子弟者“出必告,反必面”,這一點點對長輩的起碼的禮,我們是否已經每日做到了呢?我看見有些個孩子們早晨起來對父母視若無睹,晚上回到家來如入無人之境,遇到長輩常常橫眉冷目,不屑搭訕。這樣的跋扈乖戾之氣如果不早早的糾正過來,將來長大到社會服務,必將處處引起摩擦不受歡迎。我們不僅對長輩要恭敬有禮,對任何人都應維持相當的禮貌。
We Chinese set great store by propriety because it is the accepted rules of social behavior. Propriety begins from the family. For example, children should keep their parents informed of their whereabouts. That is the ABC of good manners on the part of children. Yet some children just ignore their parents when they get up in the morning or come back from school. They often pull a long face and refuse to converse when they meet their elders. If they continue to be so cocky and willful without correcting themselves as soon as possible, they will never get along well with other people some days as members of society. We should be polite not only to our elders, but also to all people.

要點
1,為子弟者“出必告,反必面”即“孩子出門或回家必須向家長說一聲”或“必須告知家長”,譯為children should keep their parents informed of their whereabouts.whereabout意為“行蹤”
2,“起碼的禮”譯得很有意思,為the ABC of good manners,其中ABC作“基礎知識”講,意同basics,fundametals
3,“我們是否已經每日做到了呢?”表面上是反問,實則是否定,譯者將其的意思體現在了下文里,因此沒有譯出,保持了行文的簡潔
4,“視若無睹”和“如入無人之境”都表示“忽視父母”,譯為ignore their parents即可
5,“將來長大到社會服務,必將處處引起摩擦不受歡迎”即“將來在社會上不能與他人和睦相處”,譯為they will never get along well with other people some days as members of society

綜述:注意本段“起碼的禮”采用的套用法。

大聲講話,擾及他人的寧靜,是一種不好的習慣。我們試自檢討一番,在別人讀書工作的時候是否有過喧嘩的行為?我們要隨時隨地為別人著想,維持公共的秩序,顧慮他人的利益,不可放縱自己,在公共場所人多的地方,要知道依次排隊,不可爭先恐后地去亂擠。
It is a bad habit to talk loudly to the disturbance of others. Ask yourself if you ever made a lot of noise while others were at their studies or at work. We should be considerate of others at all times and places, caring for public order and interests and abstaining from self-indulgence. In crowded public places, you should line up and never push through to get ahead of others.

要點
1,“大聲講話,擾及他人的寧靜,是一種不好的習慣”譯為It is a bad habit to talk loudly to the disturbance of others.其中to 表示”導致,致使”,表示引起某種后果
2,“不可放縱自己”= abstaining from self-indulgence使用的是一個形式上肯定、語義上否定的動詞結構

時間即是生命。我們的生命是一分一秒的在消耗著,我們平常不大覺得,細想起來實在值得警惕。我們每天有許多的零碎時間于不知不覺中浪費掉了,我們若能養成一種利用閑暇的習慣,一遇空閑,無論其為多么短暫,都利用之做一點有益身心之事,則積少成多終必有成。常聽人講過“消遣”二字,最是要不得,好像是時間太多無法打發的樣子,其實人生短促極了,哪里會有多余的時間待人“消遣”?陸放翁有句云:“待飯未來還讀書?!蔽抑烙腥司徒洺@眠@“待飯未來”的時間讀了不少的大書。古人所謂“三上之功”,枕上、馬上、廁上,雖不足為訓,其用意是在勸人不要浪費光陰。
Time is life. Our life is ticking away unnoticed minute by minute and second by second. It is certainly alarming when we come to think of it. Every day we are unconsciously wasting many odd moments. We should acquire the habit of utilizing leisure time, and snatch every odd moment to do whatever is beneficial to our body and mind. That will enable us to achieve good results little by little. People often talk most improperly about “seeking relaxation” as if they had more than enough time for them to while away. Life is, in fact, extremely short. How can you find so much surplus time for you to fool away? Lu Fangweng says in one of his poems, “Spend even the pre-meal odd moment in reading.” As far as I know, many people did snatch the odd moment before a meal to do a lot of reading. Our ancients recommended “three on’s”, that is, doing reading even while you are on a pillow, on a horse or on a nightstool. All that, though impracticable, serves the purpose of advising people not to waste time.

要點

1,“零碎時間”=odd time,下文的odd moment
2,“講起‘消遣’二字”譯為talk most improperly about “seeking relaxation”,此處“消遣”譯為relaxation,其本意為“休息,娛樂”
2,“最是要不得”意即“是最不合適的”譯為most improperly
3, “待飯未來還讀書?!奔础帮埱捌桃惨脕碜x書”= Spend even the pre-meal odd moment in reading.
4,“三‘上’之功”可直譯為three ‘ons’,因為之后有對這個詞的具體解釋
5,“雖不足為訓”本作“雖不足效法”,但此處作者的意思是“現在無法實施”,故譯為though impracticable
6,“其用意是在……”= serves the purpose of doing

綜述:tick away這類詞用得生動且形象,值得學習借鑒。

吃苦耐勞是我們這個民族的標志。古圣先賢總是教訓我們要能過得儉樸的生活,一個有志的人之能耐得清寒。這在個人之修養上是應有的認識,羅馬帝國盛時的一位皇帝,Marcus Aurelius,他從小就摒絕一切享受,從來不參觀那當時風靡全國的賽車比武之類的娛樂,終其身成為一位嚴肅的苦修派的哲學家,而且也建立了不朽的事功。這是很值得欽佩的,我們中國是一個窮的國家,所以我們更應該體念艱難,棄絕一切奢侈,尤其是從外國來的奢侈。從小就養成儉樸的習慣,更要知道物力維艱,竹頭木屑,皆宜愛惜。
Ours is a nation known for industry and self-denial. Frugality has always been the teaching of our ancient sages and wise men. A man of strong will should be able to endure Spartan living conditions. It should not be regarded as a disgrace to live a simple life. Nor should it be regarded as a glory to live a luxurious life. That should be the correct understanding one needs for self-cultivation. Marcus Aurelius, emperor of the Roman Empire in its heyday, refused to enjoy all comforts of life from childhood and always keep kept away from amusements like the chariot race then in vogue and other fighting-skill competitions. He remained a life-long staunch Stoic philosopher and meanwhile distinguished himself by numerous exploits. Ours is a poor country, so it is even more necessary for us to see the tough conditions facing us and renounce all luxuries, especially those coming from abroad. We should build up the habit of leading a thrifty life. We should bear in mind that all material resources are hard to come by and should be treasured, even including their odds and ends.

要點
1,“吃苦耐勞是我們這個民族的標志”譯為Ours is a nation known for industry and self-denial.這種句式轉換之前在《話說短文》中也出現過“…是中華民族的傳統”也用了此句式。
2,“一個有志的人之能耐得清寒”譯為A man of strong will should be able to endure Spartan living conditions.其中spartan或Spartan譯為“斯巴達的,斯巴達式的”以及“艱苦樸素”解
3,“惡衣惡食,不足為恥,豐衣足食,不足為榮”= It should not be regarded as a disgrace to live a simple life. Nor should it be regarded as a glory to live a luxurious life.注意否定+Nor的使用
4,“體念艱難”即“我們更需看到面臨的災難”,故譯it is even more necessary for us to see the tough conditions facing us
5,“物力維艱”指財物來之不易,譯為all material resources are hard to come by
6,odds and ends意即“零碎的東西,雜七雜八的東西”

綜述:注意本段句式的靈活性

以上數端不過是偶然拈來,好的習慣千頭萬緒,“勿以善小而不為”。習慣養成之后,便毫無勉強,臨事心平氣和,順理成章。充滿良好習慣的生活,才是合于“自然”的生活。
The above points have been picked by me at random. Good habits are too numerous to be dealt with one by one, but none, however, are too small to keep. Habit, once formed, will become your natural and spontaneous behaviour. A life full of good habits will be a life conforming with the law of nature.

要點
1,“千頭萬緒”形容事情復雜紛亂,譯為are too numerous to be dealt with one by one
2,…but none, however, are too small to keep.其中none too意為“一點也不”

綜述
四字詞眾多,使得文章的可讀性增強,翻譯時要在盡量保持原文意思的情況下,從句式和選詞上體現其文學性
1. Zu Ti, a patriotic general of the Jin Dynasty (317-420 A.D.). He was good friends with Liu Kun, another general. When they were young, being petty officials but highly motivated, they often encouraged each other and both rose at cockcrow to pratise swordplay.?

聲明:本雙語文章的中文評析系滬江英語原創內容,轉載請注明出處。中文評析僅代表作者個人觀點,如有不妥之處,歡迎指正。