我們在寫英語句子的時候,常常會犯一些相同的錯誤。下面這十個錯誤后面,都附有正確答案,以及詳細的解說。

Incomplete Sentence - Sentence Fragment
句子不完整——殘缺句

One common mistake many students make is the use of incomplete sentences. Each sentence in English must contain at least a subject and a verb, and should be an independent clause. Examples of incomplete sentences without a subject or a verb might include an instruction or a prepositional phrase.
許多學生都會犯一個常見的錯誤,就是寫出來的句子不完整。英語中,每個句子都必須至少有一個主語,一個動詞,并單獨成句。沒有主語或動詞的殘缺句子可能就只有表示指令的句子或者介詞短語了。

For example:
例如:

Through the door.
穿過大門。

In the other room.
在另一個房間。

Over there.
在那里。

These are phrases we may use in spoken English, but that should not be used in written English as they are incomplete.
在英語口語中,你可能會用到這些短語,但是因為它們畢竟不是完整的英語句子,所以在書面語言中,我們一般不會使用。

Sentence fragments caused by dependent clauses used without an independent clause are more common. Remember that subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses. In other words, if you use a subordinating clause beginning with a word such as 'because, though, if, etc.' there must be an independent clause to complete the thought. This mistake is often made on tests asking a question with 'Why'.
由于缺乏獨立分句的從屬子句導致的句子殘缺很常見。記住,從屬連詞引出了從屬子句。也就是說,如果你用一些詞語來引出從句,例如because,though,if等等,就必須要有一個獨立分句來使句子完整。我們在考試中,使用why來提出問題時,經常會犯這樣的錯誤。

For example, the sentences:
例如,下面這個句子:

Because Tom is the boss.
因為湯姆就是老板。

Since he left work early without permission.
自從他不經允許就早退。

We might answer the question: "Why did he lose his job?" However, these are sentence fragments. The correct answer would be:
我們可能會問:“他為什么丟掉工作?”但是,這些句子都是不完整的。正確用法應該是:

He lost his job because Tom is the boss.
因為湯姆就是老板,所以他丟掉了工作。

He lost his job since he left work early without permission.
他因為不經允許就早退而丟掉了工作。

Other examples of incomplete sentences introduced by subordinating clauses include:
其他關于從屬子句的殘缺句還包括下面內容:

Even though he needs help.
雖然他需要幫助

If they study enough.
如果他們好好學習

As they had invested in the company.
因為他們投資了這家公司

Run-on Sentences
句子不連貫

Run-on sentences are sentences that:
不連貫句子指的是:

1) are not connected by appropriate linking language such as conjunctions
缺乏合適的連接詞,例如連詞。

2) use too many clauses rather than using periods and linking language such as conjunctive adverbs
使用過多的從句,而非句號和連接語,例如連接副詞

The first type leaves out a word - usually a conjunction - that is required to connect a dependent and independent clause. For example:
第一種是漏掉了一個詞——通常是連接詞——用于連接非獨立子句和獨立子句。

The students did well on the test they didn't study very much.
學生們考得很好他們沒有下多少功夫。

Anna needs a new car she spent the weekend visiting car dealerships.
安娜想買輛新車她整個周末都在約見代理商。

The first sentence should use either a conjunction 'but', or 'yet' or a subordinating conjunction 'although, even though, or though' to connect the sentence. In the second sentence, the conjunction 'so' or the subordinating conjunction 'since, as, or because' would connect the two clauses.
第一句話要么應該加上一個連詞but,要么加上yet,或者一個從屬連詞although, even though或though來連接前后兩句。

The students did well, yet they didn't study very much.
學生們考得很好,但他們并沒有下多少功夫。

Anna spent the weekend visiting car dealerships since she needs a new car.
因為想買輛新車,安娜整個周末都在約見代理商。

Another common run on sentence occurs when using too many clauses. This often occurs using the word 'and'.
另一種句子不連貫發生在使用太多從句的時候。常常是由于and一詞導致。

We went to the store and bought some fruit, and we went to the mall to get some clothes, and we had lunch at McDonald's, and we visited some friends.
我們去商店買了一些水果,去購物商城買了一些衣服,在麥當勞吃的午飯,又見了一些朋友。

The continuous chain of clauses using 'and' should be avoided. In general, do not write sentences that contain more than three clauses to ensure that your sentences do not become run-on sentences.
我們應該避免使用and來連接一大串的從句。一般來說,從句不要超過三個,以確保句子的連貫性。

Duplicate Subjects
兩個主語

Sometimes students use a pronoun as a duplicate subject.
有時候,學生們會將代詞作為第二個主語。

Remember that each clause takes only one sentence. If you have mentioned the subject of a sentence by name, there is no need to repeat with a pronoun.
記住,每個從句只需要一句話。如果之前你已經提到主語的名字,就不需要再用代詞重復了。

Example 1:
例一:

Tom lives in Los Angeles.
湯姆住在洛杉磯。

NOT
而不是

Tom, he lives in Lost Angeles.
湯姆,他住在舊金山。

Example 2:
例二:

The students come from Vietnam.
學生們來自越南。

NOT
而不是

The students they come from Vietnam.
學生們他們來自越南。

Incorrect Tense
時態錯誤

Tense usage is a common mistake in student writing. Make sure that the tense used corresponds to the situation. In other words, if you are speaking about something that happened in the past do not use include a tense that refers to the present. For example:
時態錯誤在學生寫作中很常見。你要確保時態與事情發生的情況一致。也就是說,如果你要表達的是發生在過去的事,就不要使用現在時態。例如:

They fly to visit their parents in Toronto last week.
上周他們坐飛機去看望父母。

Alex bought a new car and drives it to her home in Los Angeles.
亞歷克斯買了一輛新車,并把它開進了洛杉磯的家。

Incorrect Verb Form
動詞形式錯誤

Another common mistake is the use of an incorrect verb form when combining with another verb. Certain verbs in English take the infinitive and others take the gerund (ing form).
另一個常見的錯誤就是在與其他動詞連用時,動詞形式的錯誤。英語中的動詞既有不定式形式,又有動名詞形式。

It's important to learn these verb combinations. Also, when using the verb as a noun, use the gerund form of the verb.
學習這些動詞的連用很重要。當動詞作為名詞使用時,就要使用動名詞形式。

He hopes finding a new job. / Correct -> He hopes to find a new job.
他想找一個新工作。

Peter avoided to invest in the project. / Correct -> Peter avoided investing in the project.
皮特沒有在這個項目上投資。

Parallel Verb Form
動詞復數形式

A related issue is the use of parallel verb forms when using a list of verbs. If you are writing in the present continuous tense, use the 'ing' form in your list. If you are using the present perfect, use the past participle, etc.
在使用多個動詞時,有一個問題就是動詞復數形式的使用。如果你是在用現在進行時進行寫作,就應該使用動詞ing形式。如果你使用的是現在完成時,就應該使用過去分詞形式。

She enjoys watching TV, play tennis, and cook. / Correct -> She enjoys watching TV, playing tennis, and cooking.
她喜歡看電視,打網球和烹飪。

I've lived in Italy, working in Germany and study in New York. / Correct -> I've lived in Italy, worked in Germany, and studied in New York.
我住在意大利,在德國工作,在紐約讀書。

Use of Time Clauses
時間從句的使用

Time clauses are introduced by the time words 'when', 'before', 'after' and so on. When speaking about the present or future use the present simple tense in time clauses. If using a past tense, we usually use the past simple in a time clause.
時間從句由時間詞語引導,例如when,before,after等等。當我們表達現在或將來的事時,可以使用一般現在時的時間從句。如果使用過去時態,通常會使用過去時的時間從句。

We'll visit you when we will come next week. / Correct -> We'll visit you when we come next week.
下周我們會來看你。

She cooked dinner after he was arriving. / Correct -> She cooked dinner after he arrived.
他到了之后,她才開始煮飯。

Subject - Verb Agreement
主謂一致

Another common mistake is to use incorrect subject - verb agreement. The most common of these mistakes is the missing 's' in the present simple tense. However, there are other types of mistakes. Always look for these mistakes in the helping verb.
另一個常見的錯誤就是主謂不一致。最常見的就是一般現在時中漏掉了-s。但是,還有其他類型的錯誤。這些錯誤常發生在助動詞的使用上。

Tom play guitar in a band. / Correct -> Tom plays guitar in a band.
湯姆在樂隊里是彈吉他的。

They was sleeping when she telephoned. / Correct -> They were sleeping when she telephoned.
他打電話過來時,他們都睡著了。

Pronoun Agreement
代詞一致

Pronoun agreement mistakes take place when using a pronoun to replace a proper noun. Often this mistake is a mistake of use of a singular form rather than a plural or vice versa. However, pronoun agreement mistakes can occur in object or possessive pronouns, as well as in subject pronouns.
代詞不一致發生在用代詞來替代專有名詞的情況下。通常是使用了單復數形式的錯誤使用。但是,代詞不一致也會發生在賓語或物主代詞,和主格代名詞上。

Tom works at a company in Hamburg. He loves his job. / Correct -> Tom works at a company in Hamburg. He loves his job.
湯姆在漢堡一家公司工作。他熱愛這份工作。

Andrea and Peter studied Russian at school. He thought they were very difficult.Correct -> Andrea and Peter studied Russian at school. They thought it was very difficult.
(正確)安德里亞和皮特在學校里學習了俄語。他們覺得俄語很難。

Missing Commas After Linking Language
連接語言后漏掉了逗號

When using an introductory phrase as linking language such as a conjunctive adverb or sequencing word, use a comma after the phrase to continue the sentence.
當我們使用介紹性短語,例如連接副詞或表示順序的詞語,通常會在短語后面打上逗號來連接下文。

聲明:本雙語文章的中文翻譯系滬江英語原創內容,轉載請注明出處。中文翻譯僅代表譯者個人觀點,僅供參考。如有不妥之處,歡迎指正。